Desired record (!133) from CIA World Factbook: CUrrent CIA World Factbook Record

Korea, North


*Korea, North, Geography Location: Northeast Asia, between China and South Korea Map references: Asia, Standard Time Zones of the World Area: total area: 120,540 km2 land area: 120,410 km2 comparative area: slightly smaller than Mississippi Land boundaries: total 1,673 km, China 1,416 km, South Korea 238 km, Russia 19 km Coastline: 2,495 km Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm military boundary line: 50 nm in the Sea of Japan and the exclusive economic zone limit in the Yellow Sea where all foreign vessels and aircraft without permission are banned International disputes: short section of boundary with China is indefinite; Demarcation Line with South Korea Climate: temperate with rainfall concentrated in summer Terrain: mostly hills and mountains separated by deep, narrow valleys; coastal plains wide in west, discontinuous in east Natural resources: coal, lead, tungsten, zinc, graphite, magnesite, iron ore, copper, gold, pyrites, salt, fluorspar, hydropower Land use: arable land: 18% permanent crops: 1% meadows and pastures: 0% forest and woodland: 74% other: 7% Irrigated land: 14,000 km2 (1989) Environment: mountainous interior is isolated, nearly inaccessible, and sparsely populated; late spring droughts often followed by severe flooding Note: strategic location bordering China, South Korea, and Russia *Korea, North, People Population: 22,645,811 (July 1993 est.) Population growth rate: 1.86% (1993 est.) Birth rate: 24.09 births/1,000 population (1993 est.) Death rate: 5.52 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.) Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.) Infant mortality rate: 28.6 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 69.51 years male: 66.42 years female: 72.75 years (1993 est.) Total fertility rate: 2.4 children born/woman (1993 est.) Nationality: noun: Korean(s) adjective: Korean Ethnic divisions: racially homogeneous Religions: Buddhism and Confucianism, some Christianity and syncretic Chondogyo note: autonomous religious activities now almost nonexistent; government-sponsored religious groups exist to provide illusion of religious freedom Languages: Korean Literacy: age 15 and over can read and write (1990) total population: 99% male: 99% female: 99% Labor force: 9.615 million by occupation: agricultural 36%, nonagricultural 64% note: shortage of skilled and unskilled labor (mid-1987 est.) *Korea, North, Government Names: conventional long form: Democratic People's Republic of Korea conventional short form: North Korea local long form: Choson-minjujuui-inmin-konghwaguk local short form: none Abbreviation: DPRK Digraph: KN Type: Communist state; Stalinist dictatorship Capital: P'yongyang Administrative divisions: 9 provinces (do, singular and plural) and 3 special cities* (jikhalsi,, singular and plural); Chagang-do (Chagang Province), Hamgyong-bukto (North Hamgyong Province), Hamgyong-namdo (South Hamgyong Province), Hwanghae-bukto (North Hwanghae Province), Hwanghae-namdo (South Hwanghae Province), Kaesong-si* (Kaesong City), Kangwon-do (Kangwon Province), Namp'o-si*, (Namp'o City), P'yongan-bukto (North P'yongan Province), P'yongan-namdo (South P'yongan Province), P'yongyang-si* (P'yongyang City), Yanggang-do, (Yanggang Province) Independence: 9 September 1948 note: 15 August 1945, date of independence from the Japanese and celebrated in North Korea as National Liberation Day Constitution: adopted 1948, completely revised 27 December 1972, revised again in April 1992 Legal system: based on German civil law system with Japanese influences and Communist legal theory; no judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction National holiday: DPRK Foundation Day, 9 September (1948) Political parties and leaders: major party - Korean Workers' Party (KWP), KIM Il-song, general secretary, and his son, KIM Chong-il, secretary, Central Committee; Korean Social Democratic Party, KIM Yong-ho, vice-chairman; Chondoist Chongu Party, CHONG Sin-hyok, chairman Suffrage: 17 years of age; universal Elections: President: last held 24 May 1990 (next to be held by NA 1994); results - President KIM Il-song was reelected without opposition Supreme People's Assembly: last held on 7-9 April 1993 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (687 total) the KWP approves a single list of candidates who are elected without opposition; minor parties hold a few seats Executive branch: president, two vice presidents, premier, ten vice premiers, State Administration Council (cabinet) *Korea, North, Government Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme People's Assembly (Ch'oego Inmin Hoeui) Judicial branch: Central Court Leaders: Chief of State: President KIM Il-song (national leader since 1948, president since 28 December 1972); designated successor KIM Chong-il (son of president, born 16 February 1942) Head of Government: Premier KANG Song-san (since December 1992) Member of: ESCAP, FAO, G-77, IAEA, ICAO, IFAD, IMF (observer), IMO, IOC, ISO, ITU, LORCS, NAM, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO Diplomatic representation in US: none US diplomatic representation: none Flag: three horizontal bands of blue (top), red (triple width), and blue; the red band is edged in white; on the hoist side of the red band is a white disk with a red five-pointed star *Korea, North, Economy Overview: More than 90% of this command economy is socialized; agricultural land is collectivized; and state-owned industry produces 95% of manufactured goods. State control of economic affairs is unusually tight even for a Communist country because of the small size and homogeneity of the society and the strict rule of KIM Il-song and his son, KIM Chong-il. Economic growth during the period 1984-88 averaged 2-3%, but output declined by 3-5% annually during 1989-92 because of systemic problems and disruptions in socialist-style economic relations with the former USSR and China. In 1992, output dropped sharply, by perhaps 10-15%, as the economy felt the cumulative effect of the reduction in outside support. The leadership insisted in maintaining its high level of military outlays from a shrinking economic pie. Moreover, a serious drawdown in inventories and critical shortages in the energy sector have led to increasing interruptions in industrial production. Abundant mineral resources and hydropower have formed the basis of industrial development since WWII. Output of the extractive industries includes coal, iron ore, magnesite, graphite, copper, zinc, lead, and precious metals. Manufacturing is centered on heavy industry, including military industry, with light industry lagging far behind. Despite the use of improved seed varieties, expansion of irrigation, and the heavy use of fertilizers, North Korea has not yet become self-sufficient in food production. Five consecutive years of poor harvests, coupled with distribution problems, have led to chronic food shortages. North Korea remains far behind South Korea in economic development and living standards. National product: GNP - purchasing power equivalent - $22 billion (1992 est.) National product real growth rate: -10% to -15% (1992 est.) National product per capita: $1,000 (1992 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): NA% Unemployment rate: NA% Budget: revenues $18.5 billion; expenditures $18.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1992) Exports: $1.3 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.) commodities: minerals, metallurgical products, agricultural and fishery products, manufactures (including armaments) partners: China, Japan, Russia, South Korea, Germany, Hong Kong, Mexico Imports: $1.9 billion (f.o.b., 1992 est.) commodities: petroleum, grain, coking coal, machinery and equipment, consumer goods partners: China, Russia, Japan, Hong Kong, Germany, Singapore External debt: $8 billion (1992 est.) Industrial production: growth rate -15% (1992 est.) Electricity: 7,300,000 kW capacity; 26,000 million kWh produced, 1,160 kWh per capita (1992) *Korea, North, Economy Industries: machine building, military products, electric power, chemicals, mining, metallurgy, textiles, food processing Agriculture: accounts for about 25% of GNP and 36% of work force; principal crops - rice, corn, potatoes, soybeans, pulses; livestock and livestock products - cattle, hogs, pork, eggs; not self-sufficient in grain; fish catch estimated at 1.7 million metric tons in 1987 Economic aid: Communist countries, $1.4 billion a year in the 1980s Currency: 1 North Korean won (Wn) = 100 chon Exchange rates: North Korean won (Wn) per US$1 - 2.13 (May 1992), 2.14 (September 1991), 2.1 (January 1990), 2.3 (December 1989), 2.13 (December 1988), 0.94 (March 1987) Fiscal year: calendar year *Korea, North, Communications Railroads: 4,915 km total; 4,250 km 1.435-meter standard gauge, 665 km 0.762-meter narrow gauge; 159 km double track; 3,084 km electrified; government owned (1989) Highways: about 30,000 km (1991); 92.5% gravel, crushed stone, or earth surface; 7.5% paved Inland waterways: 2,253 km; mostly navigable by small craft only Pipelines: crude oil 37 km Ports: primary - Ch'ongjin, Hungnam (Hamhung), Najin, Namp'o, Wonsan; secondary - Haeju, Kimchaek, Kosong, Sinuiju, Songnim, Sonbong (formerly Unggi), Ungsang Merchant marine: 80 ships (1,000 GRT and over) totaling 675,666 GRT/1,057,815 DWT; includes 1 passenger, 1 short-sea passenger, 2 passenger-cargo, 67 cargo, 2 oil tanker, 5 bulk, 1 combination bulk, 1 container Airports: total: 55 usable : 55 (est.) with permanent-surface runways: about 30 with runways over 3,659 m: fewer than 5 with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 30 Telecommunications: broadcast stations - 18 AM, no FM, 11 TV; 300,000 TV sets (1989); 3,500,000 radio receivers; 1 Indian Ocean INTELSAT earth station *Korea, North, Defense Forces Branches: Korean People's Army (including the Army, Navy, Air Force), Civil Security Forces Manpower availability: males age 15-49 6,567,684; fit for military service 3,996,893; reach military age (18) annually 208,132 (1993 est.) Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - about $5 billion, 20-25% of GNP (1991 est.); note - the officially announced but suspect figure is $1.9 billion (1991) 8% of GNP (1991 est.)