Desired record (!253) from CIA World Factbook: CUrrent CIA World Factbook Record


*Uzbekistan, Geography Location: Central Asia, bordering the Aral Sea, between Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan Map references: Asia, Commonwealth of Independent States - Central Asian States, Standard Time Zones of the World Area: total area: 447,400 km2 land area: 425,400 km2 comparative area: slightly larger than California Land boundaries: total 6,221 km, Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km Coastline: 0 km note: Uzbekistan does border the Aral Sea (420 km) Maritime claims: none; landlocked International disputes: none Climate: mostly mid latitude desert; semiarid grassland in east Terrain: mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum Land use: arable land: 10% permanent crops: 0% meadows and pastures: 47% forest and woodland: 0% other: 43% Irrigated land: 41,550 km2 (1990) Environment: drying up of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts Note: landlocked *Uzbekistan, People Population: 22,127,946 (July 1993 est.) Population growth rate: 2.17% (1993 est.) Birth rate: 30.57 births/1,000 population (1993 est.) Death rate: 6.63 deaths/1,000 population (1993 est.) Net migration rate: -2.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (1993 est.) Infant mortality rate: 54.4 deaths/1,000 live births (1993 est.) Life expectancy at birth: total population: 68.36 years male: 65.05 years female: 71.84 years (1993 est.) Total fertility rate: 3.78 children born/woman (1993 est.) Nationality: noun: Uzbek(s) adjective: Uzbek Ethnic divisions: Uzbek 71.4%, Russian 8.3%, Tajik 4.7%, Kazakhs 4.1%, Tartars 2.4% (includes 70% of Crimean Tatars deported during World War II), Karakalpaks 2.1%, other 7% Religions: Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3% Languages: Uzbek 85%, Russian 5%, other 10% Literacy: age 9-49 can read and write (1970) total population: 100% male: 100% female: 100% Labor force: 7.941 million by occupation: agriculture and forestry 39%, industry and construction 24%, other 37% (1990) *Uzbekistan, Government Names: conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan conventional short form: Uzbekistan local long form: Uzbekiston Respublikasi local short form: none former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic Digraph: UZ Type: republic Capital: Tashkent (Toshkent) Administrative divisions: 12 oblasts (oblastey, singular - oblast') and 1 autonomous republic*, (avtomnaya respublika); Andizhan, Bukhara, Dzhizak, Fergana, Karakalpakstan*, (Nukus), Kashkadar'ya (Karshi), Khorezm (Urgench), Namangan, Navoi, Samarkand, Surkhandar'ya (Termez), Syrdar'ya (Gulistan), Tashkent note: an administrative division has the same name as its administrative center (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses) Independence: 31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union) Constitution: new constitution adopted 8 December 1992 Legal system: evolution of Soviet civil law National holiday: Independence Day, 1 September (1991) Political parties and leaders: People's Democratic Party (PDP; formerly Communist Party), Islam A. KARIMOV, chairman; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party (EDP), Muhammad SOLIKH, chairman Other political or pressure groups: Birlik (Unity) People's Movement (BPM), Abdul Rakhman PULATOV, chairman; Islamic Rebirth Party (IRP), Abdullah UTAYEV, chairman Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal Elections: President: last held 29 December 1991 (next to be held NA December 1996); results - Islam KARIMOV 86%, Mukhammad SOLIKH 12%, other 2% Supreme Soviet: last held 18 February 1990 (next to be held NA); results - percent of vote by party NA; seats - (500 total) Communist 450, ERK 10, other 40; note - total number of seats will be reduced to 150 in next election Executive branch: president, prime minister, cabinet Legislative branch: unicameral Supreme Soviet Judicial branch: Supreme Court Leaders: Chief of State: President Islam KARIMOV (since NA March 1990) *Uzbekistan, Government Head of Government: Prime Minister Abdulkhashim MUTALOV (since 13 January 1992), First Deputy Prime Minister Ismail Hakimovitch DJURABEKOV (since NA); Supreme Soviet Chairman Shavkat Muhitdinovitch YULDASHEV (since NA June 1991) Member of: CIS, CSCE, EBRD, ECO, ESCAP, IBRD, IDA, IMF, NACC, UN, UNCTAD, WHO Diplomatic representation in US: chief of mission: Ambassador Muhammed Babir MALIKOV chancery: 200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20006 telephone: (202) 778-0107 FAX: (202) 861-0472 US diplomatic representation: chief of mission: Ambassador Henry L. CLARKE embassy: 55 Chelanzanskaya, Tashkent mailing address: APO AE 09862 telephone: [7] (3712) 77-14-07 Flag: three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a crescent moon and 12 stars in the upper hoist-side quadrant *Uzbekistan, Economy Overview: Although Uzbekistan accounted for only 3.4% of total Soviet output, it produced two-thirds of the USSR's cotton and ranks as the fourth largest global producer. Moscow's push for ever-increasing amounts of cotton had included massive irrigation projects which caused extensive environmental damage to the Aral Sea and rivers of the republic. Furthermore, the lavish use of chemical fertilizers has caused extensive pollution and widespread health problems. Recently the republic has sought to encourage food production at the expense of cotton. The small industrial sector specializes in such items as agricultural machinery, mineral fertilizers, vegetable oil, and bridge cranes. Uzbekistan also has some important natural resources including gold (about 30% of former Soviet production), uranium, and natural gas. The Uzbek Government has encouraged some land reform but has shied away from other aspects of economic reform. Output and living standards continued to fall in 1992 largely because of the cumulative impact of disruptions in supply that have followed the dismemberment of the USSR. National product: GDP $NA National product real growth rate: -10% (1992) National product per capita: $NA Inflation rate (consumer prices): at least 17% per month (first quarter 1993) Unemployment rate: 0.1% includes only officially registered unemployed; there are also large numbers of underemployed workers Budget: revenues $NA; expenditures $NA, including capital expenditures of $NA Exports: $900 million to outside the successor states of the former USSR (1992) commodities: cotton, gold, textiles, chemical and mineral fertilizers, vegetable oil partners: Russia, Ukraine, Eastern Europe Imports: $900 million from outside the successor states of the former USSR (1992) commodities: machinery and parts, consumer durables, grain, other foods partners: principally other former Soviet republics External debt: $2 billion (end 1991 est.) Industrial production: growth rate -6% Electricity: 11,950,000 kW capacity; 50,900 million kWh produced, 2,300 kWh per capita (1992) Industries: chemical and mineral fertilizers, vegetable oil, textiles Agriculture: cotton, with much smaller production of grain, fruits, vegetables, and livestock Illicit drugs: illicit producers of cannabis and opium; mostly for CIS consumption; limited government eradication programs; used as transshipment points for illicit drugs to Western Europe Economic aid: $950 million official aid commitments by foreign donors (1992) *Uzbekistan, Economy Currency: retaining Russian ruble as currency (January 1993) Exchange rates: rubles per US$1 - 415 (24 December 1992) but subject to wide fluctuations Fiscal year: calendar year *Uzbekistan, Communications Railroads: 3,460 km; does not include industrial lines (1990) Highways: 78,400 km total; 67,000 km hard-surfaced, 11,400 km earth (1990) Pipelines: crude oil 250 km, petroleum products 40 km, natural gas 810 km (1992) Ports: none; landlocked Airports: totol: 265 useable: 74 with permanent-surface runways: 30 with runways over 3,659 m: 2 with runways 2,440-3,659 m: 20 with runways 1,220-2,439 m: 19 Telecommunications: poorly developed; NMT-450 analog cellular network established in Tashkent; 1.4 million telephone lines with 7.2 lines per 100 persons (1992); linked by landline or microwave with CIS member states and by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch to other countries; satellite earth stations - Orbita and INTELSAT (TV receive only); new intelsat earth station provides TV receive only capability for Turkish broadcasts; new satellite ground station also installed in Tashkent for direct linkage to Tokyo. *Uzbekistan, Defense Forces Branches: Army, National Guard, Republic Security Forces (internal and border troops) Manpower availability: males age 15-49 5,214,075; fit for military service 4,272,398; reach military age (18) annually 218,916 (1993 est.) Defense expenditures: exchange rate conversion - $NA, NA% of GDP